|III.||The International Court of Justice|
|2.||THE JURISDICTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE|
|2.2.||Conditions for a Decision on the Merits|
(Germany v. United States of America
Judgment of 27 June 2001
[p. ] 43. The United States does not challenge the Court's jurisdiction in regard to Germany's second submission. Nor does it as such address the issue of the jurisdiction of the Court over the third submission concerning the binding nature of the Order of the Court of 3 March 1999 indicating provisional measures. It argues, however, that this submission is inadmissible (see paragraphs 50 and 53-55 below), and that the Court can fully and adequately dispose of the merits of this case without having to rule on the submission.
44. Germany asserts that the Court's Order
of 3 March 1999 was intended to "enforce" the rights
enjoyed by Germany under the Vienna Convention and
"preserve those rights pending its decision on the
merits". Germany claims that a dispute as to "whether
the United States were obliged to comply and did comply
with the Order" necessarily arises out of the interpretation
or application of the Convention and thus falls within
the jurisdiction of the Court. Germany argues further
that questions "relating to the non-compliance with
a decision of the Court under Article 41 para. 1 of
the Statute, e.g. Provisional Measures, are
an integral component of the entire original dispute
between the parties".
Moreover, Germany contends that its third submission also implicates "in an auxiliary and subsidiary manner ... the inherent jurisdiction of the Court for claims as closely interrelated with each other as the ones before the Court in the present case".
45. The third submission of Germany concerns issues that arise directly out of the dispute between the Parties before the Court over which the Court has already held that it has jurisdiction (see paragraph 42 above), and which are thus covered by Article I of the Optional Protocol. The Court reaffirms, in this connection, what it said in its Judgment in the Fisheries Jurisdiction case, where it declared that in order to consider the dispute in all its aspects, it may also deal with a submission that "is one based on facts subsequent to the filing of the Application, but arising directly out of the question which is the subject-matter of that Application. As such it falls within the scope of the Court's jurisdiction ..." (Fisheries Jurisdiction (Federal Republic of Germany v. Iceland), Merits, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1974, p. 203, para. 72). Where the Court has jurisdiction to decide a case, it also has jurisdiction to deal with submissions requesting it to determine that an order indicating measures which seeks to preserve the rights of the Parties to this dispute has not been complied with.
[pp. ] 50. The United States objects first to Germany's second, third and fourth submissions. According to the United States, these submissions are inadmissible because Germany seeks to have this Court "play the role of ultimate court of appeal in national criminal proceedings", a role which it is not empowered to perform. The United States maintains that many of Germany's arguments, in particular those regarding the rule of "procedural default", ask the Court "to address and correct ... asserted violations of U.S. law and errors of judgment by U.S. judges" in criminal proceedings in national courts.
51. Germany denies that it requests the Court to act as an appellate criminal court, or that Germany's requests are in any way aimed at interfering with the administration of justice within the United States judicial system. It maintains that it is merely asking the Court to adjudge and declare that the conduct of the United States was inconsistent with its international legal obligations towards Germany under the Vienna Convention, and to draw from this failure certain legal consequences provided for in the international law of State responsibility.
52. The Court does not agree with these arguments of the United States concerning the admissibility of the second, third and fourth German submissions. In the second submission, Germany asks the Court to interpret the scope of Article 36, paragraph 2, of the Vienna Convention; the third submission seeks a finding that the United States violated an Order issued by this Court pursuant to Article 41 of its Statute; and in Germany's fourth submission, the Court is asked to determine the applicable remedies for the alleged violations of the Convention. Although Germany deals extensively with the practice of American courts as it bears on the application of the Convention, all three submissions seek to require the Court to do no more than apply the relevant rules of international law to the issues in dispute between the Parties to this case. The exercise of this function, expressly mandated by Article 38 of its Statute, does not convert this Court into a court of appeal of national criminal proceedings.
53. The United States also argues that Germany's third submission is inadmissible because of the manner in which these proceedings were brought before the Court by Germany. It notes that German consular officials became aware of the LaGrands' cases in 1992, but that the German Government did not express concern or protest to the United States authorities for some six and a half years. It maintains that the issue of the absence of consular notification was not raised by Germany until 22 February 1999, two days before the date scheduled for Karl LaGrand's execution, in a letter from the German Foreign Minister to the Secretary of State of the United States (see paragraph 26 above). Germany then filed the Application instituting these proceedings, together with a request for provisional measures, after normal business hours in the Registry in the evening of 2 March 1999, some 27 hours before the execution of Walter LaGrand (see paragraph 30 above).
[p. ] 57. The Court recognizes that Germany may be criticized for the manner in which these proceedings were filed and for their timing. The Court recalls, however, that notwithstanding its awareness of the consequences of Germany's filing at such a late date, it nevertheless considered it appropriate to enter the Order of 3 March 1999, given that an irreparable prejudice appeared to be imminent. In view of these considerations, the Court considers that Germany is now entitled to challenge the alleged failure of the United States to comply with the Order. Accordingly, the Court finds that Germany's third submission is admissible.
[pp. ] 61. The United States also contends that Germany's submissions are inadmissible on the ground that Germany seeks to have a standard applied to the United States that is different from its own practice. According to the United States, Germany has not shown that its system of criminal justice requires the annulment of criminal convictions where there has been a breach of the duty of consular notification; and that the practice of Germany in similar cases has been to do no more than offer an apology. The United States maintains that it would be contrary to basic principles of administration of justice and equality of the Parties to apply against the United States alleged rules that Germany appears not to accept for itself.
62. Germany denies that it is asking the United States to adhere to standards which Germany itself does not abide by; it maintains that its law and practice is fully in compliance with the standards which it invokes. In this regard, it explains that the German Code of Criminal Procedure provides a ground of appeal where a legal norm, including a norm of international law, is not applied or incorrectly applied and where there is a possibility that the decision was impaired by this fact.
63. The Court need not decide whether this argument of the United States, if true, would result in the inadmissibility of Germany's submissions. Here the evidence adduced by the United States does not justify the conclusion that Germany's own practice fails to conform to the standards it demands from the United States in this litigation. The United States relies on certain German cases to demonstrate that Germany has itself proffered only an apology for violating Article 36 of the Vienna Convention, and that State practice shows that this is the appropriate remedy for such a violation. But the cases concerned entailed relatively light criminal penalties and are not evidence as to German practice where an arrested person, who has not been informed without delay of his or her rights, is facing a severe penalty as in the present case. It is no doubt the case, as the United States points out, that Article 36 of the Vienna Convention imposes identical obligations on States, irrespective of the gravity of the offence a person may be charged with and of the penalties that may be imposed. However, it does not follow therefrom that the remedies for a violation of this Article must be identical in all situations. While an apology may be an appropriate remedy in some cases, it may in others be insufficient. The Court accordingly finds that this claim of inadmissibility must be rejected.
[pp. D.O. Buergenthal] 7. The Court issued its Order only four hours before the scheduled execution of Walter LaGrand, which was to take place in the State of Arizona. The United States authorities were thus left with very little time to assess and act upon the Order with the deliberateness its gravity required under American law and constitutional practice applicable to federal-state relations as well as under international law. It is to be observed, however, that the Court was presented by Germany with claims regarding a set of facts that called for immediate action to save the life of a human being who had allegedly been deprived of his rights under international law. In light of these circumstances, it is difficult to fault the Court for issuing the Order in the manner it did. But there is no excuse for Germany's conduct in waiting until the last minute to seek the Order. This is so particularly since it is now clear that the grounds Germany alleged in justification of its late filing do not withstand scrutiny. The late filing, as will be shown below, had serious negative consequences for the position of the United States in defending its rights before this Court. In my opinion, these circumstances now require the Court to hold the third submission inadmissible.
[pp. D.O. Buergenthal] 19. I have no disagreement with the Court's view that given the imminence of "an irreparable harm" in the instant case it was "appropriate" to enter the Order of 3 March 1999 on the facts then known to the Court. But it does not follow therefrom, contrary to what the Court says, that "in view of these considerations, the Court considers that Germany is now entitled to challenge the alleged failure of the United States to comply with the Order". The fact that it was appropriate for the Court to issue the Order does not compel the admissibility of Germany's third submission once it is apparent that Germany's justification for its late filing is shown not to withstand scrutiny. It is to be regretted that the Court fails to address this issue since it bears directly on the admissibility of Germany's third submission.