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You are here: Institute People Academic Staff Ebert, Franz Christian

Franz Christian Ebert

LL.M., Research Fellow

Main Fields of Research:

International labour law, international economic law, law and development, human rights law

Academic Career:

Since 6/2013: Research Fellow at the MPIL
2009, 2011-2013: Research Officer at the International Labour Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)
2010: Visiting Professional at the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, San José (Costa Rica)
2008-2009: Research Assistant of Prof Deirdre Curtin Amsterdam Centre for European Law and Governance, University of Amsterdam
2008-2012: LL.M. Legal Research, Utrecht University (Netherlands) (with distinction)
Since 2008: Consultancy work for NGOs, government agencies, and international organisations
2005-2008: Internships at the Chamber of Industry and Commerce Oldenburg (Germany), the German Trade Union Confederation (Berlin), Caritas Quiché (Guatemala) and the International Labour Organisation (Geneva)
2005-2006: Student Assistant at the Jean Monnet Chair for European Economic Law, Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg
2004-2007: LL.B European and Comparative Law, University of Bremen, Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, and University of Geneva 



German, English, Spanish, French, Portuguese, Dutch


Selected blog posts:
"The Renegotiated "NAFTA": What is in it for Labor Rights?", EJIL: Talk!, 11 Oktober 2018, available at: (with Pedro A. Villarreal) 

Working Papers

"Labour Standards in Mega-Regional Trade Agreements: the Case of TPP and TTIP", Working Paper (November 2015), Forthcoming in Thilo Rensmann (ed.): Mega-Regional Trade Agreements and the Future of International Trade and Investment Law (2016). Available at: 

"Labour Provisions in Free Trade Agreements: Fostering their Consistency with the ILO Standards System", with Jordi Agustí-Panareda and Desirée LeClercq, ILO Background Paper (Geneva 2014). Available at:

"Labour Market Concerns and Trade Agreements: The Case of Employment Policy Provisions", with Quentin Delpech, ILO Background Paper (Geneva 2014). Available at:

"Cross-Border Collective Action: Jurisprudential Conflicts between European Courts over the Right to Strike", with Marie Walter, GURN Discussion Paper Series, Global Union Research Network (Geneva 2013). Available at:

"Aligning Private Sector Investment and Labour Standards? The Case of Policies of Development Finance Institutions”, with Anne Posthuma, Conference Paper for the ILO Research Conference “Key Lessons from the Crisis and Way Forward”, 16 -17 February 2011. Available at:                             

„Between Human Rights, Political Goodwill and WTO-Law: Political Conditionality in the EC’s New Scheme of Generalized Tariff Preferences“, ZERP Working Paper Series 8/2009, Zentrum für europäische Rechtspolitik (Bremen). Available at:


Policy Papers

"A Response to the Non-paper of the European Commission on Trade and Sustainable Development (TSD) chapters in EU Free Trade Agreements (FTAs)", 26. September 2017, gemeinsam mit Mirela Barbu, Liam Campling, James Harrison, Deborah Martens, Axel Marx, Jan Orbie, Ben Richardson und Adrian Smith, verfügbar unter:   


Institutional Publications

Main author of the study "Social Dimensions in Free Trade Agreements" (International Labour Organisation, 2013), available at: (also available in French and Spanish at:



  • Labour Administration Convention, 1978 (No. 150); Labour Inspection Convention, 1949 (No. 81); Labour Inspection Convention (Agriculture), 1969 (No. 129). In: International and European Labour Law. Article-by-Article Commentary, Edoardo Ales et al. (ed.). Nomos/Beck/Hart, Baden-Baden 2018, 403-427, 1073-1093; 1106-1120 (with Siska Dubbert).
  • Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182). In: International and European Labour Law. Article-by-Article Commentary, Edoardo Ales et al. (ed.). Nomos/Beck/Hart, Baden-Baden 2018, 1165-1179.
  • Crisis económicas, medidas de austeridad y reformas laborales. In: Revista de Derecho Social No. 82, 85-113 (2018) (with Juan Pablo Bohoslavsky).
  • What Role Can Voluntary Sustainability Standards Play in the European Union’s GSP Scheme?. Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies, Leuven, 2018.
  • Labour Standards and the World Bank. Analysing the Potential of Safeguard Policies for Protecting Workers. In: Labour Standards in International Economic Law, Henner Gött (ed.). Springer, Cham 2018, 273-304.
  • Dispute Settlement for Labour Provisions in EU Free Trade Agreements: Rethinking Current Approaches. In: Politics and Governance 5/4, 49-59 (2017).
  • The Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA): Are Existing Arrangements Sufficient to Prevent Adverse Effects on Labour Standards? In: International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations 33/2, 295-329 (2017).
  • Dispute Settlement in the Trade and Sustainable Development Chapters of EU Trade Agreements. Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies, Leuven, 2017. (with Axel Marx, Nicolas Hachez, Jan Wouters)
  • Labour Law and Trade Policy: What Implications for Economic and Human Development?. In: Labour Regulation and Development: Socio-Legal Perspectives, Shelley Marshall, Colin Fenwick (eds.). Edward Elgar, Cheltenham/Northampton 2016, 82-126 (with David Cheong).
  • Labour Provisions in EU Trade Agreements: What Potential for Channelling Labour Standards-Related Capacity Building? In: International Labour Review 155/3, 407-433 (2016).
  • Labour Provisions in Trade Arrangements: Current Trends and Perspectives. In: International Labour Law, Barbara J. Fick (ed.). Edward Elgar, Cheltenham 2015, 662-695 (with Anne Posthuma).
  • International Financial Institutions’ Approaches to Labour Law: The Case of the International Monetary Fund. In: Research Handbook on Transnational Labour Law, Adelle Blackett, Anne Trebilcock (eds.). Edward Elgar, Cheltenham 2015, 124-137.
  • ILO Labor Standards and Trade Agreements: A Case for Consistency. In: Comparative Labor Law and Policy Journal 36, 347-380 (2015) (with Jordi Agustí-Panareda, Desirée LeClercq).
  • Preventing Violations of the Right to Life in the European and the Inter-American Human Rights Systems: From the Osman Test to a Coherent Doctrine on Risk Prevention? In: Human Rights Law Review 15/2, 343-368 (2015) (with Romina I. Sijniensky).
  • The Integration of Labour Standards Concerns into the Environmental and Social Policy of the International Finance Corporation. In: Verfassung und Recht in Übersee 47/2, 229-249 (2014).
  • International Labour Law. In: Max Planck Encyclopedia of International Law, Rüdiger Wolfrum (ed.). OUP, Oxford 2013 (with Claire La Hovary).
  • Kohärenz der Politik der Weltbank mit den arbeitsrechtlichen Mindeststandards der Internationalen Arbeitsorganisation?. In: Arbeitsvölkerrecht. Festschrift für Klaus Lörcher, Wolfgang Däubler, Reingard Zimmer (eds.). Nomos, Baden-Baden 2013, 72-83.
  • Bridging the Gap between Labour Rights and Human Rights: The Role of ILO Law in Regional Human Rights Courts, 2012, IILS Discussion Paper Series 212/2012 (ILO, Geneva) (with Martin Oelz).


  • Book Review: Ebert, Franz Christian: Claire La Hovary: Les droits fondamentaux au travail. Origines, statut et impact en droit international, PUF, 2009. In: International Labour Review, 149/3, 429-435 , 2010.
  • Labour provisions in trade arrangements: current trends and perspectives, 2011, IILS Discussion Paper Series 205/2011 (ILO, Geneva) (with Anne Posthuma). 11
  • Labour Standards and Development Finance Institutions: A Review of Current Policies and Activities, 2011, IILS Discussion Paper Series 204/2011 (ILO, Geneva) (with Anne Posthuma).
  • Restricting Freedom of Contract through Non-Discrimination Provisions? A Comparison of the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) and the German ,General Equality Law’. In: German Law Journal 10/11, 1419-1438 (2009) (with Tobias Pinkel).
  • Rebalancing Globalisation: The Role of Labour Provisions in Existing International Trade Arrangements and Development Finance Policies. In: World of Work Report. The Global Jobs Crisis and Beyond, Raymond Torres (ed.). ILO, Genf 2009, 63-95 (with Anne Posthuma).
  • All done and dusted? Reflections on the EU standard of judicial protection against UN blacklisting after the ECJ’s Kadi Decision. In: Hanse Law Review 5/1, 99-114 (2009) (with Valentina Azarov).
  • Book Review: Ebert, Franz Christian: Christopher Verlage, Responsibility to Protect, Mohr Siebeck , 2009. In: Hanse Law Review , 5/1, 117-126 , 2009.
  • Executive Compensation: Trends and Policy Issues, 2008, IILS Discussion Paper Series 190/2008 (ILO, Geneva) (with Raymond Torres, Konstantinos Papadakis).
  • Der EuGH zwischen Europäischem Haftbefehl und europäischen Grundrechten – Eine gelungene Gradwanderung? Zugleich Besprechung von EuGH ,Advocaaten voor de Wereld’ (C-303/05). In: Studentische Zeitschrift Heidelberg 5/1, 361-373 (2008) (with Tobias Pinkel).
  • Zulässigkeit von Unterstützungsstreiks. Aktuelle Rechtsprechung im Spiegel völkerrechtlicher und rechtsvergleichender Betrachtungen. In: Arbeit und Recht 1-2, 19-31 (2008) (with Ralf-Peter Hayen).
  • Schicksal Standortverlagerungen? Möglichkeiten der kollektiven Einflussnahme von Arbeitnehmern auf nationaler und europäischer Ebene. In: Arbeitsrecht im Betrieb -, 225-230 (2007) (with Ralf-Peter Hayen).


04 Dec 2017

Protecting labour rights through trade agreements? Lessons from the United States-Guatemala Dispute

Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Heidelberg

21 Sep 2017

Internationale Finanzinstitutionen und verfassungsrechtliche Normen. Überlegungen am Beispiel des Ius Constitutionale Commune en América Latina

Workshop on "International öffentliche Gewalt" with Jürgen Habermas, 20-21 September 2017

Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Heidelberg

18 Sep 2017

Towards a Decentralized Proliferation of Workers’ and Indigenous Peoples’ Rights? Reflection upon the Insertion of ILO Standards into the World Bank Environmental and Social Framework’

Workshop on "The World Bank ESF in a wider realm of public international law", Durham Law School (together with Maria Victoria Cabrera)


28 Aug 2017

Aligning the World Bank’s Authority with Latin American Transformative Constitutionalism The Big Picture and Some Small Steps

Conference on “Transformative Constitutionalism in Latin America and International Economic Law: Avoiding Conflict and Fostering Dialogue”, Fundação Getulio Vargas, 28-29 August 2017

Rio de Janeiro

22 Jun 2017

The Economic Governance Framework within the EU: Assessing the Implications for Collective Bargaining Systems

Workshop on "Models of collective bargaining and Labour Law", Oñati Institute for the Sociology of Law, 22-23 June 2017

Oñati, Spain

15 Jun 2017

The United States’ Approach to Labour Provisions in Trade Agreements in the Pre-Trump Era. Lessons for the European Union's Trade Policy

Workshop on "Labour Provisions, Trade Agreements and Global Value Chains"

Queen Mary University of London

09 May 2017

Increasing the Social Sustainability of Trade Agreements Regarding Labour Standards. Insights from the TPP Experience

SMART Conference International Trade and Investment, 9-10 May 2017

University of Oslo

20 Apr 2017

Les dispositions de travail dans les Accords de Libre Echange (ALEs) et leur relation avec les instruments de l’OIT

Presentation in the context of a tripartite workshop organized by the ILO entitled "Les normes internationales du travail et les accords de libre échanges"

Rabat, Morocco

03 Mar 2017

Labour Rights in the Context of Economic Reforms and Austerity Measures. The empirical evidence

Side event on the subject "Labour Rights in the Context of Structural Adjustment and Austerity Policy" on the occasion of the 34th session of the UN Human Rights Council

Palais de Nations, Geneva

14 Nov 2016

The New Safeguards Policies of the World Bank

Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Heidelberg

25 Aug 2016

Una mirada al derecho económico internacional desde el enfoque del derecho público: implicaciones para el Ius Constitutionale Commune en América Latina

Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla

08 Jul 2016

The Role of International Financial Institutions’ Accountability Mechanisms in Fostering Human Rights Concerns: The case of the World Bank Group

SIEL Biennial Conference Johannesburg, South Africa, 7-9 July 2016 (with André Nunes Chaib)

17 Mar 2016

Impacto de los tratados mega-regionales de libre comercio en los derechos sociales. Los casos del TTIP y del TPP

XIX Cátedra Europa 2016, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, 14-18 March 2016

23 Oct 2015

La Integración de los Derechos Laborales en el Derecho Comercial Internacional: el Rol Ambivalente de América Latina

Terceira Conferêrencia Bianual da Rede Latinoamericana, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 22-24 October 2015

01 Oct 2015

Labour Standards and IFIs. What Potential for the Accountability Mechanisms of the World Bank Group?

Göttingen Conference on Labour Standards in International Economic Law, Göttingen 1-2 October 2015

18 Sep 2015

Holding German Companies Accountable for Labour Rights Violations in The Supply Chain

ITUC Workshop on Corporate Accountability in Global Supply Chains, London

08 Jul 2015

Luxembourg-Strasbourg-Geneva: The Contradictions Surrounding the Right to Strike at the European Level

22nd International Conference of Europeanists "Contradictions. Envisioning European Futures", hosted at SciencePo Paris, 8-10 July


26 Jun 2015

Labour Provisions in Trade Agreements: A “mixed blessing” for the ILO’s Standards System?

Labour Law Research Network Conference University of Amsterdam 25 -27 June 2015


22 Jun 2015

The Implications of New Governance Mechanisms for Collective Bargaining: An International Law Perspective

Given at the Workshop "New Governance Institutions in the Work Arena" at the Universitat Pompeu Fabra


28 Nov 2014

Los mecanismos de rendición de cuentas del Banco Mundial como instrumento para evitar violaciones de derechos humanos por las empresas

Seminario internacional sobre "Los principios del ICCAL y el derecho internacional económico. Posibles fortalecimientos recíprocos entre constitucionalismo transformador y un derecho sostenible del mercado globalizado", MPI Völkerrecht 27.-28. November 2014


24 Oct 2014

Introducing Labour Standards into Mega-Regionals

Conference on “Mega-Regionals and the Future of International Trade and Investment Law”, Technische Universität Dresden, 23.-24. Oktober 2014


11 Jul 2014

The Integration of Labour Provisions into Trade Agreements. Practical Effects and Regulatory Implications

Society of International Economic Law Biennial Conference, 10-12. Juli 2014

Bern, Schweiz

04 Jul 2014

International Financial Institutions and International Labour Standards

Jahrestagung des Arbeitskreises für Überseeische Verfassungsvergleichung, 4.-5. Juli 2014


13 Jun 2014

A Public Law Approach to Development Governance: The Case of the World Bank’s Country Assistance Strategy Papers

10th Global Administrative Law Seminar – Law and Global Governance of Development, 12.-13. Juni 2014

Viterbo, Italien

02 Jun 2014

Social Dimensions of Trade Agreements

Global Research Priorities and Global Governance Seminar, Warwick University

Warwick, Vereinigtes Königreich

22 May 2014

Disposiciones Laborales en Tratados de Libre Comercio: Aspectos Jurídicos y Efectos Prácticos

Curso Internacional sobre Políticas Sociales y Laborales para el Trabajo Decente, Internationale Arbeitsorganisation 8.-28. Mai 2014

Genf, Schweiz

28 Apr 2014

The Social Dimension of Trade Agreements: The Case of Labour Provisions

International Seminar on The Social Dimension of Trade Agreements, Lauterpacht Centre for International Law, University of Cambridge, 28. April 2014

Cambridge, Vereinigtes Königreich

16 Apr 2014

The Importance of Labour Provisions in Bilateral Investment Agreements: What Lessons to Draw from the Experience with Trade Agreements?

Europäischer Gewerkschaftsbund, Workshop "Developing Trade Union Activities around Multinational Investment Strategies", 16.-17. April 2014

Brüssel, Belgien

07 Mar 2014

Social Standards in Preferential Trade Agreements

Göttingen Conference on Preferential Trade Agreements and World Economic Order, ESIL Interest Group on International Economic Law, 6.-8. März 2014 Study Group on Preferential Trade Agreements of the International Law Association


27 Feb 2014

ESM-Memoranda of Understanding als Eingriff in Garantien der Tarifautonomie

Workshop zur Tarifautonomie und Euro-„Wirtschaftregierung“, Exzellenz-Cluster „Die Herausbildung normativer Ordnungen“, Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main, 28. Februar 2014 (gemeinsam mit Matthias Goldmann)

Frankfurt am Main

20 Feb 2014

Using labour provisions in EU trade agreements to steer labour standards-related development cooperation

Fostering Labor Rights in the Global Economy Multidisciplinary Perspectives on the Effectiveness of Transnational Public and Private Policy Initiatives, Research Conference, Leuven University, 20.-21. Februar 2014

Leuwen, Belgien

27 Nov 2013

Labour Provisions in Trade Agreements – An Overview of Practical Implications

Hearing on the "Implementation of Social and Environmental Provisions in Bilateral Trade Agreements", Committee on International Trade, European Parliament, 27. November 2013

Brüssel, Belgien

13 Jul 2013

Using EU Trade Instruments to Promote and Protect Human Rights

Diplomatic Conference on Trade and Human Rights, EIUC Human Rights Village, Venice, 13. Juli 2013 (gemeinsam mit Francis Maupain)

Venedig, Italien

16 May 2013

Labour Standards in the Globalized Economy

Lecture for students of the Kent State Business School, Internationale Arbeitsorganisation

Genf, Schweiz

20 Mar 2013

Die Arbeitsrechtsbestimmungen des EU-Peru/Kolumbien Freihandesabkommens

Ausschuss für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung, Deutscher Bundestag


17 Sep 2012

Human and Labour Rights Provisions in EU Trade Agreements

Alternative Trade Mandate Conference on Human Rights and Labour Rights, Misereror, 17.-18. September 2012


01 May 2012

Dispositions sociales dans les accords de libre échange :

Visite de l’Institut diplomatique et consulaire, 9.-11. Mai 2012, Palais de Nations

Genf, Schweiz

04 Feb 2012

Trade, Employment, and Labour Provisions

Meeting of the European Economic and Social Committee, Permanent Study Group on International Trade, WTO Headquarters, 4. Januar 2012

Genf, Schweiz

14 Dec 2011

La experiencia de la Unión Europea respecto a la integración del mercado laboral

Sub-Regional Expert Seminar “Strengthening Employment and Labour Rights Protection in the Context of the Andean Instrument for Labour Migration (Decision 545)” at the Secretariat General of the Andean Community

Lima, Peru

18 Nov 2011

Disposiciones Laborales en Tratados de Libre Comercio: Efectividad y Cuestiones de Coherencia

CEPAL-ILO Expert Seminar Round at the ILO Sub-Regional Office

Santiago de Chile

09 Oct 2011

Las Disposiciones Laborales en los Tratados de Libre Comercio: Hacia una Dimensión Social del Derecho Económico Latinoamericano?

Biannual Conference of the Red Latinoamericano del Derecho Internacional Económico, 8.-9. September 2011

Bogotá, Kolumbien


30 August 2017

A relação entre os acordos de livre-comércio e os direitos sociais. Fortalecimento mútuo ou uma história de amor impossível?

Fundação Getulio Vargas, Rio de Janeiro

23-25 May 2017

The Changing Role of Subjects in International Law

Heidelberg Center for Latin America, Santiago de Chile

30 March 2017

Labour Standards and International Financial Institutions

Global Labour University, ILO ACTRAV, Geneva

16 March 2017

Los mecanismos de rendición de cuentas del Banco Mundial como instrumento para evitar violaciones de derechos humanos

Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Heidelberg

13-14 March 2017

Trade and Labour – Legal Aspects

World Trade Institute, Bern

1 June 2016

Die Durchsetzungsmechanismen der Internationalen Arbeitsorganisation

Goethe University Frankfurt (guest lecture)

17-19 May 2016

The Changing Role of Subjects in International Law

Heidelberg Center for Latin America, Santiago de Chile

7 March 2016

Los mecanismos de rendición de cuentas del Banco Mundial como instrumento para evitar violaciones de derechos humanos

MPI Heidelberg (guest lecture for visiting students)

21 October 2015

As cláusulas trabalhistas nos acordos de livre-comércio: Medidas de proteção dos direitos fundamentais dos trabalhadores ou protecionismo disfarçado?

Fundação Getulio Vargas, Rio de Janeiro (guest lecture)

9 September 2015

Human Rights and Labour Law: An International Law Perspective

MPI Heidelberg (guest lecture for visiting students)

8. Juli 2013

The Reception of International Labour Law through the World Bank

University of Hamburg (guest lecture)


Utrecht Excellency Scholarship of Utrecht University (September 2008-August 2010)

Scholarship of the Hans-Böckler Foundation (April 2006-March 2008, September 2008-March 2010)


European Society of International Law

Society of International Economic Law

Labour Law Research Network

International Labour and Employment Relations Association (ILERA)

International Society of Public Law (ICON-S)