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Völkerrechtliche Praxis der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 1998

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Karen Raible

XVII. Friedenssicherung und Kriegsrecht

5. Humanitäres Völkerrecht

    247. Im Sicherheitsrat der Vereinten Nationen beklagte der österreichische Vertreter Sucharipa am 29. September 1998 im Namen der Europäischen Union die zunehmende Anzahl von Angriffen gegen das Personal der Vereinten Nationen und humanitärer Organisationen. Er sprach sich für folgende Maßnahmen aus:

"We also think that humantiarian organizations should put even more emphasis than before on adequate training for their personnel, taking into account the importance of the principles of humanitarian law and humanitarian operations. Humanitarian agencies are strongly encouraged to enhance their security arrangements and make every effort to coordinate their activities so that the risks to which they can be exposed are reduced to a minimum. The Code of Conduct for the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and NGOs in Disaster Relief and desaster relieve should be duly taken into account.

States on whose territory attacks on humanitarian workers have taken place should initiate without any delay impartial and efficient inquiry procedures. The EU considers it imperative that States ensure that any threat or act of violence commited against humanitarian workers on their territory is fully investigated and that those responsible for such acts are prosecuted, in accordance with international law and national legislation."630

    Am 16. September 1998 nahm der österreichische Vertreter Sucharipa im Namen der Europäischen Union in der Generalversammlung der Vereinten Nationen erneut zur Sicherheit von Zivilpersonen und humanitärem Personal Stellung:

"The EU shares the Secretary-General's concern regarding the continuous erosion of respect for international humanitarian law and humanitarian principles, in particular the Geneva Conventions and the principles set out in resolution 46/182. We condemn deliberate attacks on civilian populations and the denial of the basic right to recieve humanitarian assistance, and reiterate that humanitarian assistance has to be granted save, unhindered and non-discriminatory access, and that the civilian population, as well as humanitarian personnel have to be adequately protected."631

    248. Auf dem Expertentreffen zur Überprüfung der allgemeinen Probleme betreffend das IV. Genfer Abkommen zum Schutze von Zivilpersonen in Kriegszeiten, das in Genf vom 27. bis 29. Oktober 1998 abgehalten wurde, führte der deutsche Vertreter Maßnahmen zur besseren Umsetzung des humanitären Völkerrechts an:

"As was pointed out by the ICRC in its excellent paper, international humanitarian law, if it is not actively implemented, risks losing all its credibility.

Implementation has to take place in times of conflict but also in times of peace. Dissemination of international humanitarian law is of crucial importance since we can only expect the observance of this body of law with all authorities, armed forces and peoples are made familiar with its content. ...

Implementation also means strengthening national and international repression mechanisms. States are under an obligation to enact any legisation necessary to provide effective penal sanctions for persons commiting, or ordering to be commited, grave breaches of the Convention. States must also search for and prosecute those alleged to be responsible for grave breaches or extradite them for trial in another State. ...

... the primary responsibility for the respect of the Fourth Geneva Convention lies with the parties to a conflict themselves. They should be made aware of the possibility to institute an enquiry into alleged violations in accordance with Article 149 of the Fourth Geneva Convention or pursuant to Article 90 of Additional protocol I to the Geneva Conventions. ...

States parties to a conflict should also be encouraged to agree on the designation of Protecting Powers and to facilitate their task. They should allow the ICRC to carry out its mandate as the guardian of international humanitarian law and of other humanitarian organizations providing humanitarian assistance to the civilian population. ...

The respect for international humanitarian law, and the respect for fundamental human rights, is an obligation erga omnes, an obligation owed to the international community and to each of its member. It is, in our view, to be welcomed that States have been willing to take countermeasures for violations of international humanitarian law. They have considered themselves to be 'injured' states as defined by the International Law Commission in its Draft Articles on State Responsibility. It is equally encouraging that the United Nations, through the Security Council, has, over the last few years, repeatedly denounced violation of international humanitarian law as threats to peace and security and taken appropriate mandatory steps."

    249. In der Generalversammlung der Vereinten Nationen stellte der deutsche Vertreter Kastrup am 9. Dezember 1998 einen Resolutionsentwurf zu Afghanistan vor und faßt dessen Inhalt folgendermaßen zusammen:

"The draft resolution demands that all African parties respect international humanitarian law and that they, in particular the Taliban, ensure the saftey, security and freedom of movement of all humanitarian personnel. It denounces the continuing discrimination against girls, women and religious minorities and other violation of human rights and international humanitarian law and their adverse effects on international relief and reconstruction programmes. It strongly urges all of the African parties to end discriminatory policies and to recognize, protect and promote the equal rights and dignity of women and men. It further urges all African parties to put a complete halt to the use of landmines. The draft further welcomes the principle-centered approach towards humanitarian assistance and rehabilitation as outlined in the Strategic Framework for Afghanistan and the common programming mechanisms introduced by the United Nations. Finally, it calls upon the international community to respond to the inter-agency consolidated appeal for emergency humanitarian and rehabilitation assistance for Afghanistan for the year 1999."632

    630 Permanent Mission of Austria to the United Nations (Anm. 14):

    631 Permanent Mission of Austria to the United Nations (Anm. 10):

    632 UN-Doc. A/53/PV.84.