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Public International Law


VR 1.1Comprehensive Studies
VR 1.2Surveys of State Practice
VR 1.3Surveys of Judicial Decisions
VR 1.4Surveys of Literature
VR 1.5Institutes, Societies
VR 1.5.1Institut de Droit International (before 1996 see 1.5.3)
VR 1.5.2International Law Association (before 1996 see 1.5.3)
VR 1.5.3Other Institutions and Societies
VR 1.6Biographical Publications
VR 1.7Other Publications
VR 2History of International Law
VR 3Basic Problems of International Law
VR 3.1Basic Problems
VR 3.2Concept, Essence, Theory of International Law, Philosophical Issues
VR 3.3International Law and Politics
VR 3.4Public and Private International Law
VR 4International Law and National Law
VR 4.1General Issues, Monism and Dualism, Tranformation
VR 4.2Conflicts Between International Law and National Law, Hierarchy (before 1996 see 4.1)
VR 4.3Domestic Implementation of International Norms (before 1996 see 4.1)
VR 4.4International Law in Federal States (before 1996 see 4.1)
VR 5Sources of International Law
VR 5.1General
VR 5.1.1Interrelationship of Sources, Creation
VR 5.1.2Jus Cogens, Erga Omnes Obligations (before 1996 see 5.1.1)
VR 5.2Customary Law
VR 5.3Treaties (see also 32.2 Peace Treaties)
VR 5.3.1General Questions, Specific Problems
VR 5.3.2Conclusion and Entry into Force, Reservations (before 1996 see 5.3.1)
VR 5.3.3Specific Types of Treaties (before 1996 see 5.3.1)
VR 5.4General Principles of Law
VR 5.4.1General Questions
VR 5.4.2Equity (before 1996 see 5.4.1)
VR 5.4.3Estoppel (before 1996 see 5.4.1)
VR 5.4.4Good Faith, Abuse of Rights (before 1996 see 5.4.1)
VR 5.4.5Other (before 1996 see 5.4.1)
VR 5.5Resolutions of International Organizations, Soft Law
VR 5.6Subsidiary Sources
VR 5.7Codification, ILC
VR 5.8Other Problems
VR 6States as Subjects of International Law
VR 6.1Concept, Origin, Extinction, Recognition, Secession
VR 6.1.1Concept of the State in International Law
VR 6.1.2Origin and Extinction (before 1996 see 6.1.1)
VR 6.1.3Recognition (also of Governments) (before 1996 see 6.1.1)
VR 6.1.4Secession (before 1996 see 6.1.1)
VR 6.2Rights and Duties of States (see also 30.4 Humanitarian Intervention)
VR 6.2.1Sovereignty, Sovereign Equality (before 1996 see 6.2.2)
VR 6.2.2Independence, Prohibition of Intervention
VR 6.2.3Domestic Jurisdiction (before 1996 see 6.2.2)
VR 6.3State Immunity
VR 6.4Recognition of Sovereign Acts of Foreign States
VR 6.5Special Forms of States (Federal States, Personal Unions, Microstates)
VR 6.6State Succession
VR 6.7Foreign Relations Power
VR 6.8Dependencies, Decolonization
VR 6.8.1Mandates and Trust Territories (before 1996 see 6.8.2)
VR 6.8.2Colonies / Decolonisation / Dependent Territories
VR 6.8.3Condominium (before 1996 see 6.8.2)
VR 6.9Status of Particular States and Territories
VR 6.9.1General Questions
VR 6.9.2Specific Cases (before 1996 see 6.9.1)
VR 7Subjects of International Law Other Than States (see 6.), International Organizations (see 26.) and Individuals (see 15.) (Insurgents, De Facto Regime, etc.)
VR 7.1De Facto Regime
VR 7.2Insurgents, Civil War Parties
VR 7.3National Liberation Movements
VR 7.4Holy See, Order of Malta, Others (ICRC, see 32.1)
VR 8Groups of States
VR 8.1General
VR 8.2British Commonwealth
VR 8.3Commonwealth of Independent States
VR 8.4Non-Aligned Countries
VR 9Territory and Jurisdiction (see also 10. Law of the Sea)
VR 9.1General
VR 9.2International Commons, Common Heritage of Mankind
VR 9.3Acquisition and Loss of Territory
VR 9.4Domestic Jurisdiction
VR 9.5Extraterritorial Jurisdiction
VR 9.6Boundaries
VR 9.6.1General Questions, Proof of Delimitation, Maps, uti possedetis
VR 9.6.2Specific Boundary Disputes (before 1996 see 9.6.1)
VR 9.7Rivers, Lakes, Canals
VR 9.7.1General Questions
VR 9.7.2Specific Rivers (before 1996 see 9.7.1)
VR 9.7.3Specific Canals (before 1996 see 9.7.1)
VR 9.7.4Specific Lakes (before 1996 see 9.7.1)
VR 9.8Neighborship, Transboundary Cooperation (see also 13.9 Environment Protection)
VR 10Law of the Sea (see also 13.6 Environmental Protection, 22.4 Shipping)
VR 10.1General
VR 10.2Internal Waters, Coastal Waters, Contiguous Zone
VR 10.3Continental Shelf
VR 10.4Exclusive Economic Zone (before 1996 see 10.3)
VR 10.5Straits (before 1996 see 10.2)
VR 10.6Archipelagoes
VR 10.7Bays
VR 10.8Islands, Rocks
VR 10.9Deep Sea and Seabed
VR 10.10High Seas
VR 10.11Land-Locked States
VR 10.12Fisheries
VR 10.13Other Problems
VR 11Air and Space (see also 13. Environmental Protection, 22. Transport)
VR 11.1Air
VR 11.2Space
VR 12Polar Regions
VR 12.1Arctic (before 1996 see 12.2)
VR 12.2Antarctica
VR 13Environmental Protection
VR 13.1General
VR 13.2Air Pollution, Climate, Ozone Layer (before 1992 see 13.1)
VR 13.3Space (before 1992 see 13.1)
VR 13.4Protection of Plants and Animals, Biodiversity, Rio Declaration (before 1992 see 13.1)
VR 13.5Waters (except Seas, see 13.6) (before 1992 see 13.1)
VR 13.6Marine Areas (before 1992 see 13.1)
VR 13.7Waste (before 1996 see 13.1)
VR 13.8Nuclear Safety, Hazardous Activities (before 1992 see 13.1)
VR 13.9Environmental Protection and Neighborship, Transboundary Cooperation
VR 13.10Responsibility and Liability
VR 14Human Rights
VR 14.1General
VR 14.2Discrimination, General
VR 14.3Torture (including UN Convention and European Convention) (before 1992 see 14.10)
VR 14.4Rights of the Child (including UN Convention)
VR 14.5Human Rights Protection within the Scope of the United Nations
VR 14.5.1General
VR 14.5.2Universal Declaration of Human Rights (before 1996 see 14.5.1)
VR 14.5.3Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination (before 1996 see 14.5.1)
VR 14.5.4UN Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (before 1996 see 14.5.1)
VR 14.5.5UN Covenant on Economic and Social Rights (before 1996 see 14.5.1)
VR 14.5.6UN Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (before 1996 see 14.5.1)
VR 14.6Human Rights Protection in Europe
VR 14.6.1General Questions
VR 14.6.2European Convention on Human Rights
VR Questions
VR and Procedure
VR Rights
VR 14.6.3European Social Charter
VR 14.7Human Rights Protection in the Americas
VR 14.7.1General (before 1996 see 14.7.2)
VR 14.7.2American Convention on Human Rights
VR 14.8Human Rights Protection in Africa
VR 14.8.1General (before 1996 see 14.8.2)
VR 14.8.2African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights
VR 14.9Other Regional Developments
VR 14.10Other Problems
VR 15Individuals and Groups (see also 18.1 Responsibility of Individuals)
VR 15.1General
VR 15.2Nationality, Statelessness
VR 15.2.1General, Acquisition and Loss
VR 15.2.2Multiple Nationality (before 1996 see 15.2.1)
VR 15.2.3Statelessness (before 1996 see 15.2.1)
VR 15.2.4Nationality of Juridical Persons
VR 15.3Entry and Departure, Aliens
VR 15.3.1General (before 1996 see 15.4.1)
VR 15.3.2Immigration and Emigration of Nationals and Aliens (before 1996 see 15.4.1)
VR 15.4Refugees and Asylum
VR 15.4.1General
VR 15.4.2Specific States (before 1996 see 15.4.1)
VR 15.5Ethnic Groups and Minorities
VR 15.5.1Indigenous Peoples (before 1996 see 15.5.2)
VR 15.5.2Minorities
VR 15.6Self-Determination of Peoples
VR 15.7Diplomatic Protection
VR 16State Responsibility and State Liability (see also 13.10 Environmental Protection)
VR 16.1General Issues, Prerequisites
VR 16.2Consequences of Liability, Restitution
VR 17Diplomatic and Consular Relations, Diplomatic and Consular Immunity
VR 17.1Diplomatic Relations
VR 17.1.1General, History
VR 17.1.2Establishment and Severance of Diplomatic Relations, Appointment and Recall of Ambassadors (before 1996 see 17.1.1)
VR 17.1.3Status of the Embassy Building and the Members of Diplomatic Missions
VR 17.2Consular Relations
VR 17.2.1General (before 1996 see 17.1.1)
VR 17.2.2Status of Members of Consulates (before 1996 see 17.1.1)
VR 18International Criminal Law, International Criminal Law Cooperation
VR 18.1General Issues, Responsibility of Individuals (before 1992 see 18.4)
VR 18.2War Crimes, Crimes Against Peace, Crimes Against Humanity, Genocide
VR 18.3International Criminal Courts (Yugoslavia Court, International Criminal Court, etc.)
VR 18.4Criminal Law Cooperation, Mutual Legal Assistance
VR 18.5Extradition (before 1992 see 18.4)
VR 18.6Terrorism (before 1992 see 18.4)
VR 18.7Other Problems, Other Offenses
VR 19International Public and Private Law Cooperation
VR 19.1Private Law Cooperation
VR 19.1.1Private International Law
VR 19.1.2International Law of Civil Procedure (before 1996 see 19.1.1)
VR 19.2Public Law Cooperation
VR 19.3International Banking Law, Securities Law, Cartel Law and Bankruptcy Law
VR 20World Economic Order and Social Order
VR 20.1General
VR 20.2World Trade System: GATT/WTO (Institutional Issues)
VR 20.3Movement of Goods, Services, Freedom of Establishment (before 1996 see 20.2)
VR 20.4Most-Favored-Nation Treatment, Nondiscrimination (before 1996 see 20.2)
VR 20.5Customs, Non-Tariff Trade Barriers (before 1996 see 20.2)
VR 20.6Dumping, Subsidies (before 1996 see 20.2)
VR 20.7Individual Economic Sectors (Raw Materials, Energy, Agriculture, etc.)
VR 20.8Property, Expropriation, Investment
VR 20.9Protection of Intellectual Property (Copyright, Legal Protection of Industrial Property) (before 1996 see 20.1)
VR 20.10Multinational Enterprises
VR 20.11Labor Matters, Social Standards
VR 20.12Technology Transfer
VR 20.13Economic Cooperation, Development Policy
VR 20.14Regional Forms of Economic Integration (see also 33. EU, 33.7 EEA)
VR 20.14.1Central and South America, Carribean (LAFTA, ANDEAN Group, Caricom, etc.) (before 1992 see 27.3.1)
VR 20.14.2NAFTA
VR 20.14.3Asian and Pacific Region
VR 20.14.4Europe (except EU and EEA) (before 1992 see 27.2.1)
VR 20.14.5Africa (before 1992 see 27.4.1)
VR 20.14.6Other Groups (Islamic States, etc.) (before 1992 see 27.7)
VR 21Finances, Currency, Taxes
VR 21.1General
VR 21.2Institutions (World Bank, IMF, etc.) (before 1996 see 21.1)
VR 21.3Currency
VR 21.4Loans, Debt
VR 21.5Taxes
VR 22Transport
VR 22.1General
VR 22.2Air Transport (before 1996 see 22.1)
VR 22.3Rail Transport, Road Transport (before 1996 see 22.1)
VR 22.4Shipping (before 1996 see 22.1)
VR 23Telecommunications
VR 23.1General Issues, Postal Matters
VR 23.2Radio, Television (ITU, INTELSAT, etc.) (before 1996 see 23.1)
VR 23.3Other Forms of Data Transfer
VR 24Culture, Education, Sport
VR 24.1Protection of Cultural Property (before 1996 see 24.2)
VR 24.2Cultural Cooperation
VR 24.3Education (before 1996 see 24.2)
VR 24.4Sport (before 1996 see 24.2)
VR 25Health
VR 26Law of International Organizations (except UN, see 28., EU, see 33., and Economic Organizations, see 20.)
VR 26.1General
VR 26.2Legal Status, Membership (before 1996 see 26.1)
VR 26.3Internal Law (Personnel, Administrative Tribunals, Budget) (before 1996 see 26.1)
VR 26.4External Relations (before 1996 see 26.1)
VR 26.5Non-Governmental Organizations
VR 27Regional Organizations (except EU, see 33., Economic Organizations, see 20.14, and Alliances, see 31.)
VR 27.1General (before 1996 see 26.1)
VR 27.2European Organizations
VR 27.2.1General
VR 27.2.2Council of Europe (before 1996 see 27.2.1)
VR 27.2.3CSCE/OSCE (before 1996 see )
VR 27.2.4Other (before 1996 see 27.2.1)
VR 27.3American Organizations
VR 27.3.1OAS (before 1996 see 20.14.1)
VR 27.3.2Other (before 1992 see 27.3.1^)
VR 27.4African Organizations
VR 27.4.1OAU (before 1996 see 20.14.5)
VR 27.4.2Other (before 1992 see 27.4.1)
VR 27.5Asian and Pacific Organizations (before 1996 see 20.14.3)
VR 27.6Arab and Islamic Organizations
VR 27.6.1League of Arab States
VR 27.6.2Other
VR 27.7Other Regional Organizations
VR 28United Nations and Specialized Agencies (see also 30.3 Collective Security, 20.13 Economic Cooperation)
VR 28.1General, Origin, History
VR 28.2Legal Status, Membership (before 1996 see 28.1)
VR 28.3UN Charter (Interpretation, Revision) (before 1996 see 28.1)
VR 28.4Main Organs (except ICJ, see 29.3)
VR 28.4.1Security Council (before 1996 see 28.1)
VR 28.4.2General Assembly (before 1996 see 28.1)
VR 28.4.3Secretariat (before 1996 see 28.1)
VR 28.4.4Economic and Social Council (before 1996 see 28.1)
VR 28.4.5Trusteeship Council (before 1996 see 28.1)
VR 28.5Internal Law (Personnel, Administrative Tribunal, Budget) (before 1996 see 28.1)
VR 28.6External Relations (before 1996 see 28.1)
VR 28.7Individual Specialized Agencies (before 1996 see 28.1)
VR 29Peaceful Settlement of Disputes
VR 29.1General
VR 29.2Non-Judicial Settlement (Negotiation, Fact-Finding, Good Offices, Mediation, Conciliation) (before 1996 see 29.1)
VR 29.3ICJ and PCIJ
VR 29.3.1General Questions, Creation, Historical Background
VR 29.3.2Jurisdiction and Admissibility (before 1996 see 29.3.1)
VR 29.3.3Organization and Procedure (before 1996 see 29.3.1)
VR 29.3.4Effect and Implementation of Decisions (before 1996 see 29.3.1)
VR 29.3.5Specific Cases (before 1996 see 29.3.1)
VR 29.4Specialized Procedures (GATT Panels, OSCE, etc.)
VR 29.4.1General Questions, Creation, Historical Background
VR 29.4.2Arbitration (before 1996 see 29.4.1)
VR 29.4.3Panels (GATT and WTO)
VR 29.4.4Other Procedures (before 1996 see 29.4.1)
VR 29.5International Commerical Arbitration (including ICSID and Similar Proceedings)
VR 30Peacekeeping, Collective Security, Prohibition of the Use of Force
VR 30.1General
VR 30.2Prohibition of the Use of Force, Self-Defense (before 1992 see 32.1)
VR 30.3Collective Security, Peacekeeping (before 1996 see 30.1 and 28.1)
VR 30.4Humanitarian Intervention (before 1996 see 32.1)
VR 30.5Unilateral Measures/Countermeasures (Sanctions, Reprisals, Boycotts, Embargoes)
VR 30.6Armaments, Arms Trade
VR 30.6.1General Questions, History
VR 30.6.2Specific Agreements on Arms Limitation
VR Weapons (before 1996 see 30.6.1)
VR Weapons (before 1996 see 30.6.1)
VR and Chemical Weapons (before 1996 see 30.6.1)
VR Weapons Systems (before 1996 see 30.6.1)
VR 30.6.3Arms Trade
VR 31Alliances
VR 31.1General
VR 31.2Individual Alliances
VR 31.2.1NATO (before 1996 see 31.1)
VR 31.2.2WEU (before 1996 see 31.1)
VR 31.2.3Other Alliances (before 1996 see 31.1)
VR 32War, Armed Conflict, Neutrality
VR 32.1General Issues, Individual Conflicts
VR 32.2Commencement of War, Legal Consequences of a State of War, Termination of War, Peace Treaties
VR 32.3Use of Particular Types of Weapons (before 1996 see 32.1)
VR 32.4Specific Issues of Land Warfare, Air Warfare, Naval Warfare (before 1996 see 32.1)
VR 32.5Treatment of Particular Groups of Persons (Combatants, Civilians, Prisoners of War, Mercenaries, etc.)
VR 32.5.1General Questions (before 1996 see 32.1)
VR 32.5.2Combatant Status (before 1996 see 32.1)
VR 32.5.3Protection of the Civilian Population (before 1996 see 32.1)
VR 32.5.4Prisoners of War (before 1996 see 32.1)
VR 32.5.5Mercenaries (before 1996 see 32.1)
VR 32.5.6Hostages (before 1996 see 32.1)
VR 32.5.7Guerilla and Partisan Movements (before 1996 see 32.1)
VR 32.5.8Medical Personnel (before 1996 see 32.1)
VR 32.6Protection of Particular Legal Interests
VR 32.6.1Protection of Private Property (before 1996 see 32.1)
VR 32.6.2Protection of the Natural Environment (before 1996 see 32.1)
VR 32.6.3Protection of Cultural Property (before 1996 see 32.1)
VR 32.7Occupation
VR 32.7.1General Questions (before 1996 see 32.1)
VR 32.7.2Specific Territories (before 1996 see 32.1)
VR 32.8Non-International Armed Conflict
VR 32.9Neutrality
VR 33European Union, European Communities
VR 33.1General Issues, Origin, History
VR 33.2Constitution
VR 33.2.1General, Division of Competences
VR 33.2.2EU Citizenship (before 1996 see 33.2.1)
VR 33.2.3Basic Rights (including Equality and the Prohibition of Discrimination) (before 1996 see 33.2.1)
VR 33.2.4Sources of Community Law
VR Questions (before 1996 see 33.2.1)
VR Community Law (Regulations, Directives, Decisions) (before 1996 see 33.2.1)
VR Administrative Law (before 1996 see 33.2.1)
VR 33.2.5Community Legislative Procedure (before 1996 see 33.2.1)
VR 33.2.6Liability of the Community (before 1996 see 33.2.1)
VR 33.3Organs and Institutions
VR 33.3.1General Questions (Seat, Languages, etc.) (before 1996 see 33.2.1)
VR 33.3.2Council of Ministers, European Council (before 1996 see 33.2.1)
VR 33.3.3Commission (before 1996 see 33.2.1)
VR 33.3.4European Parliament (before 1996 see 33.2.1)
VR 33.3.5Court of Justice of the European Communities
VR Questions (before 1996 see 33.2.1)
VR Procedures (before 1996 see 33.2.1)
VR 33.3.6Other Institutions and Organs (before 1996 see 33.2.1)
VR 33.4Community Law and National Law (Priority and Direct Application)
VR 33.5Implementation of Community Law (before 1996 see 33.4)
VR 33.6Harmonization of Laws (before 1996 see 33.4)
VR 33.7External Relations, Association, Accession, Common Commercial Policy
VR 33.7.1Common Foreign and Security Policy, General Questions of Foreign Relations
VR 33.7.2Common Commercial Policy (before 1996 see 33.7.1)
VR 33.7.3Association, EEA (before 1996 see 33.7.1)
VR 33.7.4Accession of States (before 1996 see 33.7.1)
VR 33.8Finances, Currency
VR 33.8.1EMS and Currency Union (before 1996 see 33.19)
VR 33.8.2Free Movement of Capital, Banking, Insurance (before 1996 see 33.9)
VR 33.8.3Budget, Community Finance (before 1996 see 33.19)
VR 33.9Free Movement of Goods
VR 33.10Free Movement of Persons, Freedom of Establishment, Freedom of Services
VR 33.10.1Free Movement of Workers, Free Movement in General
VR 33.10.2Freedom of Establishment (before 1996 see 33.10.1)
VR 33.10.3Freedom of Services (before 1996 see 33.10.1)
VR 33.11Competition, State Aids
VR 33.11.1Competition, Cartel Law
VR 33.11.2Subsidies (before 1996 see 33.11.1)
VR 33.11.3Monopolies, Public Enterprises (before 1996 see 33.11.1)
VR 33.12Common Agricultural and Fisheries Policy (before 1996 see 33.19)
VR 33.13Transport Policy (before 1996 see 33.19)
VR 33.14Labor Law, Social Policy (before 1996 see 33.19)
VR 33.15Environmental Protection, Consumer Protection, Health (before 1996 see 33.19)
VR 33.16Research, Technology, Industry (before 1996 see 33.19)
VR 33.17Culture, Media, Education, Sport (before 1996 see 33.19)
VR 33.18Cooperation in the Areas of Justice and Home Affairs
VR 33.18.1General Questions (before 1996 see 33.19)
VR 33.18.2Asylum and Immigration Policy, Border Controls, Visa Policy (before 1996 see 33.19)
VR 33.18.3Criminal Law Cooperation (before 1996 see 33.19)
VR 33.18.4Jurisdiction and Enforcement in Civil Matters (before 1996 see 33.19)
VR 33.19Other Policies and Problems